Contact Us

Social Doctrine Compendium (2005)

30 January, 2005


Letter of Cardinal Angelo Sodano
Presentation by Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace
Abbreviations and Biblical Abbreviations

Introduction: An integral and solidary humanism
a. At the dawn of the third millennium
b. The significance of this document
c. At the service of the full truth about man
d. In the sign of solidarity, respect and love

Part One
Chapter One:1 God’s Plan of Love for Humanity
I. God’s liberating action in the history of Israel
a. God’s gratuitous presence
b. The principle of creation and God’s gratuitous action
II.. Jesus Christ, the fulfillment of the Father’s plan of love
a. In Jesus Christ the decisive event of the history of God with mankind is fulfilled
b. The revelation of Trinitarian love
III. The Human Person in God’s Plan of Love
a. Trinitarian love, the origin and goal of the human person
b. Christian salvation: for all people and the whole person
c. The disciple of Christ as a new creation
d. The transcendence of salvation and the autonomy of earthly realities
IV. God’s Plan and the Mission of the Church
a. The Church, sign and defender of the transcendence of the human person
b. The Church, the Kingdom of God and the renewal of social relations
c. New heavens and a new earth
d. Mary and her fiat in God’s plan of love

Chapter Two: The Church’s Mission and Social Doctrine
I. Evangelisation and Social Doctrine
a. The Church, God’s dwelling place with men and women
b. Enriching and permeating society with the Gospel
c. Social doctrine, evangelisation and human promotion
d. The rights and duties of the Church
II. The Nature of the Church’s Social Teaching
a. Knowledge illuminated by faith
b. In friendly dialogue with all branches of knowledge
c. An expression of the Church’s ministry of teaching
d. For a society reconciled in justice and love
e. A message for the sons and daughters of the Church and for humanity .
f. Under the sign of continuity and renewal
III. The Church’s Social Doctrine in our Time: Historical Notes
a. The beginning of a new path
b. From Rerum Novarum to our own day
c. In the light and under the impulse of the Gospel

Chapter Three: The Human Person and Human Rights
I. Social Doctrine and the Personalist Principle
II. The Human Person as the ‘Imago Dei’
a. Creatures in the image of God
b. The tragedy of sin
c. The universality of sin and the universality of salvation
III. The many aspects of the Human Person
A. The unity of the person
B. Openness to transcendence and uniqueness of the person
a. Open to transcendence
b. Unique and unrepeatable
c. Respect for human dignity
C. The freedom of the human person
a. The value and limits of freedom
b. The bond uniting freedom with truth and the natural law
D. The equal dignity of all people
E. The social nature of human beings
IV. Human Rights
a. The value of human rights
b. The specification of rights
c. Rights and duties
d. Rights of peoples and nations
e. Filling in the gap between the letter and the spirit

Chapter Four: Principles of the Church’s Social Doctrine
I. Meaning and Unity
II. The Principle of the Common Good
a. Meaning and primary implications..
b. Responsibility of everyone for the common good
c. Tasks of the political community
III. The Universal Destination of Goods
a. Origin and meaning
b. The universal destination of goods and private property
c. The universal destination of goods and the preferential option for the poor
IV. The Principle of Subsidiarity
a. Origin and meaning
b. Concrete indications
V. Participation
a. Meaning and value
b. Participation and democracy
VI. The Principle of Subsidiarity
a. Meaning and value
b. Solidarity as a social principle and a moral virtue
c. Solidarity and the common growth of mankind
d. Solidarity in the life and message of Jesus Christ
VII. The Fundamental values of Social Life
a. The relationship between principles and values
b. Truth
c. Freedom
d. Justice
VIII. The Way of Love

Part Two
Chapter Five: The Family, The Vital Cell of Society
I. The Family, The First Natural Society
a. Importance of the family for the person
b. Importance of the family for society
II. Marriage, The Foundation of the Family
a. The value of marriage
b. The sacrament of marriage
III. The Social Subjectivity of Society
a. Love and the formation of a community of persons ..
b. The family is the sanctuary of life
c. The task of educating
d. The dignity and rights of children
IV. The Family as Active Participation in Social
a. Solidarity in the family
b. The family, economic life and work
V. Society at the Service of Society

Chapter Six: Human Work
I. Biblical Aspects
a. The duty to cultivate and care for the earth
b. Jesus, a man of work
c. The duty to work
II. The Prophetic Value of Rerum Novarum
III. The Dignity of Work
a. The subjective and objective dimensions of work
b. The relationship between labour and capital
c. Work, the right to participate
d. The relationship between labour and private property …
e. Rest from work
IV. The Right to Work|
a. Work is necessary
b. The role of the State and civil society in promoting the right to work
c. The family and the right to work
d. Women and the right to work
e. Child labour
j. Immigration and work
g. The world of agriculture and the right to work
V. The Rights of Workers
a. The dignity of workers and the respect for their rights….
b. The right to fair remuneration and income distribution ..
c. The right to strike
VI. Solidarity Amongst Workers
a. The importance of unions
b. New forms of solidarity
VII. The “New Things” of the world of Work
a. An epoch-making phase of transition.
b. Social doctrine and the ‘new things’

Chapter Seven: Economic Life
I. Biblical Aspects
a. Man, poverty and riches
b. Wealth exists to be shared
II. Morality and the Economy
III. Private Initiative and Business Initiative
a. Business and its goals
b. Role of business owners and management
IV. Economic Institutions at the Service of Man
a. Role of the free market
b. Action of the State .
c. Role of intermediate bodies
d. Savings and consumer goods
V. The New Things in the Economic Sector
a. Globalisation: opportunities and risks
b. The international financial system
c. Role of the international community in an era of a global economy
d. An integral development in solidarity
e. Need for more educational and cultural formation

Chapter Eight: The Political Community
1. Biblical aspects
a. God’s dominion…..
b. Jesus and political authority
c. The early Christian communities
II. Foundation and Purpose of the Political community
a. Political community, the human person and a people
b. Defending and promoting human rights
c. Social life based on civil friendship
III. Political Authority
a. The foundation of political authority
b. Authority as moral force
c. The right to conscientious objection
d. The right to resist
e. Inflicting punishment
IV. The Democratic System
a. Values and democracy
b. Institutions and democracy
c. Moral components of political representation
d. Instruments for political participation
e. Information and democracy
V. The Political Community at the service of Civil Society
a. Value of civil society
b. Priority of civil society
c. Application of the principle of subsidiarity
VI. The State and Religious Community
a. Religious freedom, a fundamental human right
b. The Catholic Church and the political community
1. Autonomy and independence
2. Cooperation

Chapter Nine: The International Community
I. Biblical Aspects
a. Unity of the human family
b. Jesus Christ, prototype and foundation of the new humanity
c. The universal vocation of Christianity
II. The Fundamental Rules of the International Community
a. The international community and values
b. Relations based on harmony between the juridical and moral orders
III. The Organisation of the International Community
a. The value of international organisations
b. The juridical personality of the Holy See
IV. International Cooperation for Developement
a. Cooperation to guarantee the right to development
b. The fight against poverty
c. Foreign debt

Chapter Ten: Safeguarding the Environment
1. Biblical Aspects
II. Man and the Universe of Created Things
Ill. The Crisis in the Relationship between Man and the Environment
IV. A Common Responsibility
a. The environment, a collective good
b. The use of biotechnology
c. The environment and the sharing of goods
d. New lifestyles

Chapter Eleven: The Promotion of Peace
I. Biblical Aspects
II. Peace: The Fruit of Love
I11. The Failure of Peace: War
a. Legitimate defence
b. Defending peace
c. The duty to protect the innocent
d. Measures against those who threaten peace
e. Disarmament
f. The condemnation of terrorism
IV. The Contribution of the Church to Peace

Chapter Twelve: Social Doctrine and Ecclesial Action
I. Pastoral Action in the Social field
a. Social doctrine and the inculturation of faith
b. Social doctrine and social pastoral activity
c. Social doctrine and formation
d. Promoting dialogue
e. The subjects of social pastoral activity
II. Social Doctrine and the Commitment of the Lay Faithful
a. The lay faithful
b. Spirituality of the lay faithful
c. Acting with prudence .
d. Social doctrine and lay associations .
e. Service in the various sectors of social life .
1. Service to the human person .
2. Service in culture.
3. Service in the economy.
4. Service in politics

Conclusion: For a Civilisation of Love
a. The help that the Church offers to modern man
b. Starting afresh from faith in Christ
c. A solid hope .
d. Building the ‘civilisation of love’

Index of references
Analytical index
End Notes

494 pp. Veritas 2005. To purchase this book online, go to www.veritas.ie .


In this Compendium you will find principles for reflection, criteria for judgment and directives for action which are the starting point for the promotion of a solid and integral humanism. Making the Church’s social doctrine known is part of the Church’s evangelising mission. The Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace arranged, prepared and edited the content of this book in consultation with the different dicasteries of the Roman Curia and its members and consulters worldwide

It is not an easy read, but it is a book that will reward careful scrutiny. Part One looks at the human person and society in the light of the Gospel and moves on to identify the basis of human rights as well as the reasons why they should be promoted. It goes on to treat well-documented Catholic principles of social justice – the common good, the universal destination of goods, subsidiarity, participation, solidarity and important values like truth, freedom, justice and love.

Part Two asks how these principles find their application in important areas of human life – the family, human work, economic life, the political and international community, safeguarding the environment, and promoting peace. Part Three stresses that promoting the Church’s social teaching is an integral part of evangelisation and that it is the lay faithful who have the pre-eminent role. It concludes by promoting “a civilisation of love” that must embrace the entire human race.


Chapter One: God’s Plan of Love and Humanity

I. God’s Liberating Action in the History of Israel

a. God’s gratuitous presence
20. Every authentic religious experience, in all cultural traditions, leads to an intuition of the Mystery that, not infrequently, is able to recognise some aspect of God’s face. On the one hand, God is seen as the origin of what exists, as the presence that guarantees to men and women organised in a society the basic conditions of life, placing at their disposal the goods that are necessary. On the other hand, he appears as the measure of what should be, as the presence that challenges human action – both at the personal and at the social levels – regarding the use of those very goods in relation to other people. In every religious experience, therefore, importance attaches to the dimension of gift and gratuitousness, which is seen as an underlying element of the experience that the human beings have of their existence together with others in the world, as well as to the repercussions of this dimension on the human conscience, which senses that it is called to manage responsibly and together with others the gift received. Proof of this is found in the universal recognition of the golden rule, which expresses on the level of human relations the injunction addressed by the Mystery to men and women: ‘Whatever you wish that men should do to you, do so to them’ (Mt 7:12). (23)

21. Against the background of universal religious experience, in which humanity shares in different ways, God’s progressive revelation of himself to the people of Israel stands out. This revelation responds to the human quest for the divine in an unexpected and surprising way, thanks to the historical manner – striking and penetrating – in which God’s love for man is made concrete. According to the Book of Exodus, the Lord speaks these words to Moses: ‘I have seen the affliction of my people who are in Egypt, and have heard their cry because of their taskmasters; I know their sufferings, and I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land to a good and broad land, a land flowing with milk and honey’ (Ex 3:7-8). The gratuitous presence of God – to which his very name alludes, the name he reveals to Moses, ‘I am who I am’ (Ex 3: 14) – is manifested in the freeing from slavery and in the promise. These become historical action, which is the origin of the manner in which the Lord’s people collectively identify themselves, through the acquisition of freedom and the land that the Lord gives them.

22. The gratuitousness of this historically efficacious divine action is constantly accompanied by the commitment to the covenant, proposed by God and accepted by Israel. On Mount Sinai, God’s initiative becomes concrete in the covenant with his people, to whom is given the Decalogue of the commandments revealed by the Lord (cf. Ex 19-24). The ‘ten commandments’ (Ex 34:28; d. Deut 4: 13; 10:4) ‘express the implications of belonging to God through the establishment of the covenant. Moral existence is a response to the Lord’s loving initiative. It is the acknowledgment and homage given to God and a worship of thanksgiving. It is cooperation with the plan God pursues in history’. (24)

The Ten Commandments, which constitute an extraordinary path of life and indicate the surest way for living in freedom from slavery to sin, contain a privileged expression of the natural law. They ‘teach us the true humanity of man. They bring to light the essential duties, and therefore, indirectly, the fundamental rights inherent in the nature of the human person’. (25) They describe universal human morality. In the Gospel, Jesus reminds the rich young man that the Ten Commandments (d. Mt 19:18) ‘constitute the indispensable rules of all social life’. (26)

23. There comes from the Decalogue a commitment that concerns not only fidelity to the one true God, but also the social relations among the people of the Covenant. These relations are regulated, in particular, by what has been called the right of the poor: ‘If there is among you a poor man, one of your brethren, … you shall not harden your heart or shut your hand against your poor brother, but you shall open your hand to him, and lend him sufficient for his need’ (Deut 15:7-8). All of this applies also to strangers: ‘When a stranger sojourns with you in your land, you shall not do him wrong. The stranger who sojourns with you shall be to you as the native among you, and you shall love him as yourself; for you were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the Lord your God’ (Lev 19:33-34). The gift of freedom and the Promised Land, and the gift of the Covenant on Sinai and the Ten Commandments are therefore intimately linked to the practices which must regulate, in justice and solidarity, the development of Israelite society.

24. Among the many norms which tend to give concrete expression to the style of gratuitousness and sharing in justice which God inspires, the law of the sabbatical year (celebrated every seven years) and that  (27) (celebrated every fifty years) stand out as important guidelines – unfortunately never fully put into effect historically – For the social and economic life of the people of Israel. Besides requiring fields to lie fallow, these laws call for the cancellation of debts and a general release of persons and goods: everyone is free to return to his family of origin and to regain possession of his birthright.

This legislation is designed to ensure that the salvific event of the Exodus and Jidelity to the Covenant represents not only the Jounding principle of Israel’s social, political and economic life, but also the principle of dealing with questions concerning economic poverty and social injustices. This principle is invoked in order to transform, continuously and from within, the life of the people of the Covenant, so that this life will correspond to God’s plan. To eliminate the discrimination and economic inequalities caused by socio-economic changes, every seven years the memory of the Exodus and the Covenant are translated into social and juridical terms, in order to bring the concepts of property, debts, loans and goods back to their deepest meaning.

25. The precepts of the sabbatical and jubilee years constitute a kind of social doctrine in miniature. (28)They show how the principles of justice and social solidarity are inspired by the gratuitousness of the salvific event wrought by God, and that they do not have a merely corrective value for practices dominated by selfish interests and objectives, but must rather become, as a prophecy of the future, the normative points of reference to which every generation in Israel must conform if it wishes to be faithful to its God.

These principles become the focus of the Prophets’ preaching, which seeks to internalise them. God’s Spirit, poured into the human heart – the Prophets proclaim – will make these same sentiments of justice and solidarity, which reside in the Lord’s heart, take root in you (cf. Jer 31 :33 and Ezek 36:26-27). Then God’s will, articulated in the Decalogue given on Sinai, will be able to take root creatively in man’s innermost being. This process of internalisation gives rise to greater depth and realism in social action, making possible the progressive universalisation of attitudes of justice and solidarity, which the people of the Covenant are called to have towards all men and women of every people and nation.

b. The principle of creation and God’s gratuitous action
’26. The reflection of the Prophets and that found in the Wisdom Literature, in coming to the formulation of the principle that all things were created by God, touch on the first manifestation and the source itself of God’s plan for the whole of humanity. In Israel’s profession of faith, to affirm that God is Creator does not mean merely expressing a theoretical conviction, but also grasping the original extent of the Lord’s gratuitous and merciful action on behalf of man. In fact, God freely confers being and life on everything that exists. Man and woman, created in his image and likeness (cf. Gen 1 :26-27), are for that, very reason called to be the visible sign and the effective instrument of divine gratuitousness in the garden where God has placed them as cultivators and custodians of the goods of creation.

27. It is in the free action of God the Creator that we find the very meaning of creation, even if it has been distorted by the experience of sin. In fact, the narrative of the first sin (cf. Gen 3: 1-24) describes the permanent temptation and the disordered situation in which humanity comes to find itself after the fall of its progenitors. Disobedience to God means hiding from his loving countenance and seeking to control one’s life and action in the world. Breaking the relation of communion with God causes a rupture in the internal unity of the human person, in the relations of communion between man and woman and of the harmonious relations between mankind and other creatures. (29)  It is in this original estrangement that are to be sought the deepest roots of all the evils that afflict social relations between people, of all the situations in economic and political life that attack the dignity of the person, that assail justice and solidarity.

II. Jesus Christ :the Fulfilment of the Father’s Plan of Love

a. In Jesus Christ the decisive event of the history of God with mankind is fulfilled
28. The benevolence and mercy that inspire God’s actions and provide the key for understanding them become so very much closer to man that they take on the traits of the man Jesus, the Word made flesh. In the Gospel of Saint Luke, Jesus describes his messianic ministry with the words of Isaiah which recall the prophetic significance of the jubilee: The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach the good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord’ (Lk 4:18-19; d. Is 61: 1-2). Jesus therefore places himself on the frontline of fulfilment, not only because he fulfils what was promised and what was awaited by Israel, but also in the deeper sense that in him the decisive event of the history of God with mankind is fulfilled. He proclaims: ‘He who has seen me has seen the Father’ (In 14:9). Jesus, in other words, is the tangible and definitive manifestation of how God acts towards men and women.

29. The love that inspires Jesus’ ministry among men is the love that he has experienced in his intimate union with the Father. The New Testament allows us to enter deeply into the experience; that Jesus himself lives and communicates, the love of God his Father – ‘Abba’ – and, therefore, it permits us to enter into the very heart of divine life. Jesus announces the liberating mercy of God to those whom he meets on his way, beginning with the poor, the marginalised, the sinners. He invites all to follow him because he is the first to obey God’s plan of love, and he does so in a most singular way, as God’s envoy in the world.

Jesus’ self-awareness of being the Son is an expression of this primordial experience. The Son has been given everything, and freely so, by the Father: ‘All that the Father has is mine’ (Jn 16: 15). His in turn is the mission of making all men sharers in this gift and in this filial relationship: ‘No longer do I call you servants, for the servant does not know what his master is doing; but I have called you friends, for all that I have heard from my Father I have made known to you’ (Jn 15: 15).

For Jesus, recognising the Father’s love means modelling his actions on God’s gratuitousness and mercy; it is these that generate new life. It means becoming – by his very existence – the example and pattern of this for his disciples. Jesus’ followers are called to live like him and, after his Passover of death and resurrection, to live also in him and by him, thanks to the superabundant gift of the Holy Spirit, the Consoler, who internalises Christ’s own style of life in human hearts.

b. The revelation of Trinitarian love
30. With the unceasing amazement of those who have experienced the inexpressible love of God (cf. Rom 8: 26), the New Testament grasps, in the light of the full revelation of Trinitarian love offered by the Passover of Jesus Christ, the ultimate meaning of the Incarnation of the Son and his mission among men and women. Saint Paul writes: ‘If God is for us, who is against us? He who did not spare his own Son but gave him up for us all, will he not also give us all things with him?’ (Rom 8:31-32). Similar language is used also by Saint John: ‘In this is love, not that we loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the expiation for our sins’ (1 Jn 4:10).

3I. The Face of God, progressively revealed in the history of salvation, shines in its fullness in the Face of Jesus Christ crucified and risen from the dead. God is Trinity: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; truly distinct and truly one, because God is an infinite communion of love. God’s gratuitous love for humanity is revealed, before anything else, as love springing from the Father, from whom everything draws its source; as the free communication that the Son makes of this love, giving himself anew to the Father and giving himself to mankind; as the ever new fruitfulness of divine love that the Holy Spirit pours forth into the hearts of men (cf. Rom 5:5).

By his words and deeds, and fully and definitively by his death and resurrection, (30) Jesus reveals to humanity that God is Father and that we are all called by grace to become his children in the Spirit (cf. Rom 8: 15; Gal 4:6), and therefore brothers and sisters among ourselves. It is for this reason that the Church firmly believes that ‘the key, the centre and the purpose of the whole of man’s history is to be found in her Lord and Master’. (31)

32. Meditating on the gratuitousness and superabundance of the Father’s divine gift of the Son, which Jesus taught and bore witness to by giving his life for us, the Apostle John grasps its profound meaning and its most logical consequence. ‘Beloved, if God so loves us, we also ought to love one another. No man has ever seen God; if we love one another, God abides in us and his love is perfected in us’ (1Jn 4: 11-12). The reciprocity of love is required by the commandment that Jesus describes as ‘new’ and as ‘his’: ‘that you love one another; even as I have loved you, that you also love one another’ (Jn 13:34). The commandment of mutual love shows how to live in Christ the Trinitarian life within the Church, the Body of Christ, and how to transform history until it reaches its fulfilment in the heavenly Jerusalem.

33. The commandment of mutual love, which represents the law of life for God’s people, (32) must inspire, purify and elevate all human relationships in society and in politics. ‘To be human means to be called to interpersonal communion’, (33) because the image and the likeness of the Trinitarian God are the basis of the whole of ‘human ‘ethos’, which reaches its apex in the commandment of love’. (34) The modern cultural, social, economic and political phenomenon of interdependence, which intensifies and makes particularly evident the bonds that unite the human family, accentuates once more, in the light of Revelation, ‘a new model of the unity of the human race, which must ultimately inspire our solidarity. This supreme model of unity, which is a reflection of the intimate life of God, one God in three Persons, is what we Christians mean by the word ‘communion’. (35)

1.. John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte, 1: AAS 93 (2001) 266.
2. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Missio, 11: AAS 83 (1991) 260.
3. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2419.
4. John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte, 50-51: AAS 93 (2001) 303-304.
5. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socia/is, 41: AAS 80 (1988) 571-572.
6. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in America, 54: AAS 91 (1999) 790.
7. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in America, 54: AAS 91 (1999) 790; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 24.
8. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 55: AAS 83 (1991) 860.
9. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 15: AAS 81 (1989) 414.
10. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree Christus Dominus, 12: AAS 58 (1966) 678.11. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 31: AAS 57 (1965) 37.
12. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 4: AAS 63 (1971) 403.
13. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 92: AAS 58 (1966) 1113-1114.
14. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Verbum, 2: AAS 58 (1966) 818.
15. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 3: AAS 58 (1966) 1026.
16. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 3: AAS 58 (1966) 1027.
17. cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes 10: AAS 58 (1966) 1032.
18. John Paul II, Address at General Audience (19 October 1983) L’Osservatore Romano, English edition, 24 October 1983, p.9.
19. Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes. 44: AAS 58 (1966) 1064.
20. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudiurn et Spes 20. AAS 58 (1966) 1026.
21. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium 1: AAS 57 (1965) 5.
22. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes 3.  AAS 58 (1966) 1050.
23. cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1789, 1970, 2510.
24. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2062.
25. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2070.
26. John Paul II, Enyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 97: AAS 85 (1993) 1209.
27. These laws are found in Ex 23, Deut 15, Lev 25.
28. John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Tertio Millennio Adveniente, 13: AAS 87 (1995) 14.
29. Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 13:  AAS 58 (1966) 1035.
30. Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Verbum, 4: AAS 58 (1966) 819.
31. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 10: AAS 58 (1966) 1033.
32. Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 9: AAS 57 (1965) 12-14.
33. John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Mulieris Dignitatem, 7: AAS 80 (1988) 1666.
34. John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Mulieris Dignitatem, 7: AAS 80 (1988) 1665-1666.
35. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 40: AAS 80 (1988) 569.

Tags: ,